Phillip Martin

Senior Investigative Reporter, WGBH-FM

Since joining WGBH in the spring of 2010, Phillip Martin has reported on human trafficking in southern New England, the Boston Marathon bombing, Whitey Bulger, carbon offset schemes, police shootings, training and race, the Occupy movement and the fishing industry in New England, among other topics. 

On WGBH-TV, he is a regular panelist for Basic Black and an occasional panelist for Beat the Press, and hosted the World Compass 2012 presidential primary coverage. He is a Senior Fellow with the Schuster Institute for Investigative Journalism and a 2012 International Center for Journalists Ford Foundation Fellow.

In addition, Phillip is executive producer for Lifted Veils Productions, a nonprofit public radio journalism project dedicated to exploring issues that divide and unite society. His Color Initiative --an occasional series of reports about the global impact of skin color--aired on The World, a co-production of WGBH, the BBC and PRI.  Phillip has worked as a supervising senior editor for NPR and was NPR’s first national race relations correspondent, from 1998 to 2001. In 1995, in his role as a senior producer, he helped create The World.

He has received various journalism honors, including a 2014 national Edward R. Murrow Award for investigative journalism (Underground Trade),  2014 Clarion Awards, a 2012 PASS Award, a 2012 regional Edward R. Murrow Award for Ongoing Coverage (team award), the Margaret and Hans Rey WGBH producer of the year award, a 2011 regional Edward R. Murrow Award for Investigative Reporting, the 2010 Asian American Journalists Award for National Radio Reporting, the 2008 Ruben Salazar Award and the 2005 NABJ Radio Documentary Award. He is an adjunct professor at Brandeis University's Heller School of Public Policy.

Phillip was a Harvard University Nieman Fellow from 1997 to 1998 and a U.S.-Japan Media Fellow in 1997. He earned a master's degree in law and diplomacy from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University and studied international protection of human rights law at Harvard Law School as well as journalism at the University of California at Berkeley in the Program for Minority Journalists. 

Pages

News
11:24 pm
Fri May 22, 2015

Amidst Sky-Rocketing Rents In Boston A Glimmer of Hope for the Middle Class

A drawing of Boston's newest luxury high rise building in the Seaport District, 100 Pier 4 with monthly rents ranging from $2,701 to $6,142
Credit 100 Pier 4

Boston Mayor Marty Walsh’s Administration has just released its quarterly housing report, and there may be some good news for the city’s middle class.   I was among a small gathering of reporters who met with the mayor this week when he reiterated his vision for the city’s housing market.    

Read more
News
8:11 pm
Tue May 19, 2015

Freed From Prison After 21 Years: Angel Echavarria's Story

Angel Echavarria with his 22 year old daughter, Ishannis Lopez, and other family members
Credit Phillip Martin / WGBH News

Prisons are filled with men who claim they are innocent.   Once in a while the stars seem to align and a lucky man is given the chance to prove it.

Read more
Local News
11:58 am
Tue May 19, 2015

Tsarnaev Death Sentence To Be Formalized By End Of June

In this courtroom sketch, Boston Marathon bomber Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, center, stands with his defense attorneys as a death by lethal injection sentence is read at the Moakley Federal court house in the penalty phase of his trial in Boston, Friday, May 15, 2015
Credit Jane Flavell Collins via AP

UPDATED: 4:00 p.m.

Read more
Local News
6:00 pm
Mon May 18, 2015

Tsarnaev Decision: My Surprise

Police converge on a Watertown street during the Boston Marathon Bombing Manhunt in April.
Credit Courtesy Andrew Kitzenberg

Around 4 p.m., everyone in the court stood as the jury foreperson was asked by the judge to read the decision reached by all seven women and five men. They were then polled one-by-one, in their own struggling, sometimes tear-filled voices, and each juror agreed aloud with the death sentence they had just imposed on 21-year-old Dzhokhar Tsarnaev.

Read more
Local News
12:01 pm
Fri May 15, 2015

Tsarnaev Sentencing Deliberation Stretches Into Second Full Day

Members of the defense team for convicted Boston Marathon bomber Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, from left, Judy Clarke, Timothy Watkins, Miriam Conrad and William Fick leave federal court in Boston, Thursday, May 14, 2015.
Credit AP Photo

Twelve women and men are deliberating multiple factors to decide if Dzhokhar Tsarnaev will live or die, as the jury is still out in the Boston Marathon bombing trial.

Read more
Local News
12:26 pm
Wed May 13, 2015

Jury Begins Deliberating In Sentencing Of Boston Marathon Bomber Dzhokhar Tsarnaev

Credit Jane Flavell Collins / AP

Update, 4 p.m.: Closing arguments in the trial of Dzhokhar Tsarnaev have finished — with the defense and prosecution painting radically different pictures of what life in prison might hold for the convicted Boston Marathon bomber.

Read more
News
4:48 pm
Tue May 12, 2015

After Winning A 4th Trial In Cop Killing Case, Sean Ellis Granted Bail

Sean Ellis, the man convicted of murdering a Boston police detective in 1993, today was granted bail.  He was convicted of shooting Detective John Mulligan five times in the face as he sat in his car while on a security detail.    The first two trials ended in hung-juries.  Ellis--now 40 years old- was convicted after a third trial in 1995,  but has always maintained his innocence. 

Read more
News
2:23 pm
Tue May 12, 2015

Anti-Death Penalty Activists Last Minute Scramble to Keep Tsarnaev Alive

Anti-death penalty activists in front of the US Courthouse in Boston

The jury in the Boston Marathon Bombing trial begins deliberating Dzhokhar Tsarnaev ‘s fate the the next day or two.

Meanwhile, anti-death penalty activists are using petitions to the court, demonstrations, calls to the Cardinal and a nun named Helen Prejean to try to sway juror’s views.

Testimony in the penalty phase ended Monday in dramatic fashion when Prejean, made famous by the movie “Dead Man Walking” said that the defendant, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, expressed regret for his crimes.

Read more
Local News
10:06 am
Mon May 11, 2015

Tsarnaev Sentencing: Defense Rests, Gov't Calling More Witnesses To Rebut

In this sketch Dzhokhar Tsarnaev sits with his lawyers at his trial.
Credit Jane Flavell Collins / AP

Update, noon: The penalty phase of Boston marathon bomber Dzhokhar Tsarnaev’s trial is has entered its final stage — with the government calling witnesses to rebut the defense’s arguments against the death penalty.

Read more
Local News
5:01 am
Mon May 11, 2015

Nun of 'Dead Man Walking' May Testify in Tsarnaev Trial

Credit Jane Flavell Collins / AP

 

On MondayDzhokhar Tsarnaev’s attorneys are hoping to call to the stand a nun who was made famous by the movie Dead Man Walking, about an anti-death penalty advocate.  But that may not happen. U.S. prosecutors have filed a motion to stop her testimony and U.S. Judge George O’ Toole has not ruled if it will be allowed.    

Read more
Human Trafficking
3:09 am
Mon May 11, 2015

The ‘Cost of Pretty Nails’ Is a Lot More than You Think

The New York Times in an investigation into some of the 17,000 nail salons that dot large cities and small towns across the United States finds that there is “rampant exploitation of those who toil in the industry.

Read more
News
12:51 am
Fri May 8, 2015

Tsarnaev Trial: Government Seeks To Bar 'Dead-Man-Walking' Nun From Testifying

Sister Helen Prejean

Testimony in the Boston Marathon bombing trial will likely come to an end next week, according to court officials.  On Monday, the defense is hoping to top off its witness list in the penalty phase with a famous anti-death penalty advocate.  

Read more
News
9:30 am
Thu May 7, 2015

Corruption Marred The Investigation of Murdered Policeman: The Case of Sean Ellis

Murdered Detective John Mulligan and Convicted Murderer Sean Ellis. Ellis has been granted a new trial in a case marred by corruption.

Sean Ellis has spent more than half his life behind bars for a murder he insists he did not commit.  He was convicted in 1995 for fatally shooting Boston detective John Mulligan.  On Tuesday, a Superior Court Judge granted Ellis a new trial—his fourth in so many years.  

Read more
Local News
11:47 am
Wed May 6, 2015

Tsarnaev Jury Hears About Possible Prison Conditions

Testimony continues during the federal death penalty trial of Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, second from left.
Credit Jane Flavell Collins / AP via NPR

End of day: Wednesday afternoon, jurors in the trial of convicted Boston Marathon bomber Dzhokhar Tsarnaev heard about the prison where Tsarnaev will likely spend his life — if he’s not put to death— and the lack of human contact he’d experience there.

Read more
Local News
1:43 am
Tue May 5, 2015

Tsarnaev Defense Tries To Make Conflict In Russia An Issue In Marathon Bombing Trial

Dzhokhar Tsarnaev’s aunt, Patimat Suleimanova, made it as far as the witness stand— and less than than 5 feet from the defendant— when she began weeping uncontrollably, and had to be removed from the courtroom. 

Read more
Local News
7:50 pm
Mon May 4, 2015

At The Tsarnaev Trial: It's Cultural Identity Versus Personal Responsibility

In this sketch Dzhokhar Tsarnaev sits with his lawyers at his trial.
Credit Jane Flavell Collins / AP

End of day: Lawyers for convicted Boston Marathon bomber Dzhokhar Tsarnaev delved into anthropology yesterday — but their focus on central Asian history and folkways may have backfired.

Read more
Local News
8:43 am
Mon May 4, 2015

Tsarnaev Family Takes The Stand

The parents of Dzhokhar Tzarnaev (pictured above) will not be testifying at the penalty-phase of his trial. However, relatives from Russia are scheduled to do so.
Credit Jane Flavell Collins / AP via NPR

Update, Noon: Four relatives of convicted Boston Marathon bomber Dzhokhar Tsarnaev of them have taken the stand — with the third growing so emotional that she was unable to testify.  The third witness called this morning was Tsarnaev’s aunt Patimat Suleimanova — a sister of Dzhokhar’s mother Zubeidat. She sobbed loudly as she took the witness stand, and appeared to be hyperventilating. When she was unable to compose herself, Patimat was replaced by another aunt on the stand, and led out of the courtroom, still weeping.

Read more
News
12:27 am
Fri May 1, 2015

A Kinder, Gentler Tsarnaev is described by Defense Witnesses in 2nd Week of Penalty Phase

Nine-year old Dzhokhar Tsarnaev with Tamerlan
Credit Federal Defenders Office

The prosecution has painted 21-year old  Dzhokhar Tsarnaev as a cold blooded killer.  But  the defense brought witnesses to the stand this week who collectively painted a different picture of the man who would become the Boston Marathon Bomber.   

The Tsarnaev family moved to the United States from Russia in 2002.   Dzhokhar Tsarnaev was 9.

His 5th grade teacher at the Cambridge Street Upper School, from 2003 to 2005,  described him as “super kind….really smart. very quick to learn… a really lovely person.”

Read more
News
10:15 am
Wed April 29, 2015

Killing Tsarnaev Part Two: "Friends" of Dzhokhar rally to save his life

Some Tsarnaev supporters persist in their belief that he is innocent

On the first day of testimony in the penalty phase of the Marathon Bombing trial, prosecutors portrayed Dzhokhar Tsarnaev as "America's worst nightmare."   Krystle Campbell's father, William Jr., barely held back tears describing his now dead daughter as "the light of my life".

Read more
Local News
9:12 am
Tue April 28, 2015

Tsarnaev Trial, Day 2: Tamerlan Deals Pot, His Wife Researches Rewards Of Martyrdom

In this courtroom sketch, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, center, is depicted between defense attorneys Miriam Conrad, left, and Judy Clarke, right, during his federal death penalty trial in Boston.
Credit AP Photo/Jane Flavell Collins

3 p.m.: The second day of defense arguments in the penalty phase of marathon bomber Dzhokhar Tsarnaev’s trial focused once again on his deceased brother Tamerlan — with several witnesses discussing Tamerlan’s frustrated boxing career.

Read more
Local News
1:27 pm
Thu April 23, 2015

Tsarnaev Sentencing: Prosecution Rests After Doctor, Victims Detail Injuries

In this courtroom sketch, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, right, and defense attorney Judy Clarke are depicted watching evidence displayed on a monitor during his federal death penalty trial.
Credit AP Photo Jane Flavell Collins

Update, 2 p.m.: The final witness called by the government Thursday was Steve Woolfenden — who lost part of his left leg while watching the Boston Marathon outside the Forum Restaurant on Boylston Street. 

Read more
News
1:27 am
Thu April 23, 2015

Killing Tsarnaev Part One: Experts Warn of the Cost of Martyrdom

A photo accompanying a May 2013 issue of Al Qaeda’s Inspire Magazine depicts Tamerlan aloft in the clouds. This is what security experts fear—the making of a second "martyr", Dzhokhar Tsaernaev.

I can assure that many people within the security apparatus of our government are concerned.

In schools, cafes and around work-place water coolers across the state, a debate is raging over the question of life or death for Marathon Bomber, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev.  Everyone seems to have an opinion about which is the worse punishment. But there is another consideration that may have been overlooked in this discussion:  The question of security posed by the very prospect of killing Tsarnaev.   

Read more
Local News
9:54 am
Tue April 21, 2015

Sentencing Phase: Dzhokhar Tsarnaev Flashed Middle Finger At Security Camera

In this courtroom sketch, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, center, is depicted between defense attorneys Miriam Conrad, left, and Judy Clarke, right, during his federal death penalty trial in Boston.
Credit AP Photo/Jane Flavell Collins

Update 3:00 p.m.:

The day began with judge George O'Toole giving jury instructions on the penalty phase of the trial — he reminded jurors they all said they were open to the death penalty, but said they were not obligated to choose it. If Dzhokhar Tsarnaev gets death, it must be unanimous.

Read more
Sports
12:11 pm
Mon April 20, 2015

Desisa Wins 119th Boston Marathon; Rotich Takes Women's Race In Tight Finish

Lelisa Desisa, left, and Caroline Rotich won the 2015 men's and women's races in the Boston Marathon.
Credit AP Photos

Nearly 30,000 starters competed in today’s Boston Marathon. 

Lelisa Deesisa of Ethiopia and Caroline Rotich from Kenya won in the men’s and women’s divisions respectively.

Tatyana McFaden of the United States and Marcel Hug of Switzerland came in first in the wheelchair races.  The crowd numbers were lower than usual on this rain soaked day.
 
Those who turned out at the sidelines witnessed what came down to a neck and neck race between Kenyan Caroline Rotich and Ethiopian Mare Dibaba. 

Rotich crossed the finish line by a hair.

Read more
News
3:00 pm
Sat April 18, 2015

Two Years After the Marathon Bombings Striving for 'One Boston'

The family of bombing victim Martin Richard and hundreds of others at 2nd year anniversary commemoration on Boston City Hall Plaza.
Credit Phillip Martin WGBH RADIO

Eleven minutes before the hour of 3:00 pm. on Wednesday, church bells tolled across Boston to mark the two-year anniversary of the first bomb that exploded at the finish line of the Boston Marathon. 

Hundreds of people gathered on Boylston Street and at Government Center to both remember and to reflect.  The midday stillness that reigned over the city for just a moment at 2:49 pm was punctuated by bells tolling from Old South Church.  

Read more
News
2:16 am
Fri April 10, 2015

If Clarence Darrow Defended Tsarnaev: The Art of The Closing Argument

Clarence Darrow in 1924, with his clients, Nathan Leopold, left, and Richard Loeb, right.
Credit United Press International

After weeks of testimony and 96 witnesses a jury this week found admitted Boston Marathon Bomber, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, guilty on all 30 charges.  Seventeen of them are punishable by death.  The trial now enters the penalty phase. Legal experts argue that a powerful or weak closing argument has represented the difference between life in prison or execution.  WGBH Radio’s Senior Reporter Phillip Martin looks at an effective closing argument that saved two lives. 

The year was 1924. 

Read more
Local News
10:13 am
Thu April 9, 2015

Mother Of Maimed Brothers Wants Death Penalty For Tsarnaev

In this courtroom sketch, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, right, and defense attorney Judy Clarke are depicted watching evidence displayed on a monitor during his federal death penalty trial Monday, March 9, 2015, in Boston.
Credit AP Photo Jane Flavell Collins

After nearly 12 hours of deliberations the jury in the trial of Boston Marathon bomber, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, has reached a verdict.

Read more
Local News
9:12 am
Wed April 8, 2015

Tsarnaev: Guilty On All 30 Counts In Marathon Bombing, 17 Carry Possibility Of Execution

In this courtroom sketch, Boston Marathon bombing suspect Dzhokhar Tsarnaev is depicted sitting in federal court in Boston. Tsarnaev is charged with the April 2013 attack that killed three and wounded more than 200.
Credit (AP Photo/Jane Flavell Collins)

The courtroom was stone-cold quiet as defendant Dzhokhar Tzarnaev, 21 years of age, entered.

The jury had reached a verdict on each of the 30 charges he faced for the April 15 bombing at the finish line of the 2013 Boston Marathon.

Tzarnaev was found guilty of all charges against him.

This obviously includes the 17 charges that carry the possibility of death penalty.

Tsarnaev showed little emotion. He fidgeted occasionally. Stared down at the defense table. At one point, however, the defendant wrapped his arms across his chest as if to hold himself. It was a gesture that courtroom observers had not seen before.

Three people died within minutes at the scene of the Boylston Street bombing: Martin Richard (aged 8, of Dorchester), Lu Lingzi (A BU student from China), Krystal Campbell (a local restaurant manager from Medford).

264 were taken to local hospitals, eight with wounds so severe that they required limbs to be amputated.

An MIT police officer, Sean Collier, was killed in a subsequent, related incident.

And Richard Donahue, an MBTA worker, was shot seriously – possibly by friendly fire that raged in the attempt to capture Dzhokhar and his late brother Tamerlan.

After the verdict was concluded, Denise Richard, the mother of 8-year-old Martin, wiped tears from her eyes.

Her husband, Bill, embraced one of the prosecutors after the jury left the courtroom.

Boston Mayor Marty Walsh said in a statement he was thankful this phase of the trial was over.

"The incidents of those days have forever left a mark on our city," Walsh said. "As we remember those who lost so much, we reflect on how tragedy revealed our deepest values, and the best of who we are as a community."

The Charges Against Dzhokhar Tsarnaev:

Count 1: Death penalty count. Conspiracy to use a weapon of mass destruction, resulting in death. Guilty.

Count 2: Death penalty count. Use of a weapon of mass destruction, Pressure Cooker Bomb #1, resulting in death; and aiding and abetting. Guilty.

Count 3: Death penalty count. Possession and use of a firearm, Pressure Cooker Bomb #1 during and in relation to a crime of violence, resulting in death; and aiding and abetting. Guilty.

Count 4: Death penalty count. Use of a weapon of mass destruction, Pressure Cooker Bomb #2, resulting in death; and aiding and abetting. Guilty.

Count 5: Death penalty count. Possession and use of a firearm --Pressure Cooker Bomb #2 during and in relation to a crime of violence, resulting in death; and aiding and abetting. Guilty.

Count 6: Death penalty count. Conspiracy to bomb a place of public use, resulting in death. Guilty.

Count 7: Death penalty count. Bombing of a place of public use, Pressure Cooker Bomb #1, resulting in death; aiding and abetting. Guilty.

Count 8: Death penalty count. Possession and use of a firearm, Pressure Cooker Bomb #1, during and in relation to a crime of violence, resulting in death; aiding and abetting. Guilty.

Count 9: Death penalty count. Bombing of a place of public use, Pressure Cooker Bomb #2, resulting in death; aiding and abetting. Guilty.

Count 10: Death penalty count. Possession and use of a firearm, Pressure Cooker Bomb #2 during and in relation to a crime of violence, resulting in death; aiding and abetting. Guilty.

Count 11: Conspiracy to maliciously destroy property, resulting in death. Guilty.

Count 12: Death penalty count. Malicious destruction of property by means of an explosive, Pressure Cooker Bomb #1, resulting in death; aiding and abetting. Guilty.

Count 13: Death penalty count. Possession and use of a firearm, Pressure Cooker Bomb #1, during and in relation to a crime of violence, resulting in death; aiding and abetting. Guilty.

Count 14: Death penalty count. Malicious destruction of property by means of an explosive, Pressure Cooker Bomb #2, resulting in death; aiding and abetting. Guilty.

Count 15: Death penalty count. Possession and use of a firearm, Pressure Cooker Bomb #2, during and in relation to a crime of violence, resulting in death; aiding and abetting. Guilty.

Count 16: Death penalty count. Possession and use of a firearm, Ruger P95 9mm semiautomatic handgun during and in relation to a crime of violence, resulting in death; aiding and abetting. Guilty.

Count 17: Death penalty count. Possession and use of a firearm, Ruger P95 9mm semiautomatic handgun during and in relation to a crime of violence, resulting in death; aiding and abetting. Guilty.

Count 18: Death penalty count. Possession and use of a firearm, Ruger P95 9mm semiautomatic handgun during and in relation to a crime of violence, resulting in death; aiding and abetting. Guilty.

Count 19: Carjacking, resulting in serious bodily injury; aiding and abetting. Guilty.

Count 20: Possession and use of a firearm, Ruger P95 9mm semiautomatic handgun) during and in relation to a crime of violence; aiding and abetting. Guilty.

Count 21: Interference with commerce by threats and violence; aiding and abetting. Guilty.

Count 22: Possession and use of a firearm Ruger P95 9mm semiautomatic handgun during and in relation to a crime of violence; aiding and abetting. Guilty.

Count 23: Use of a weapon of mass destruction, Pressure Cooker Bomb #3, on or about April 19, 2013, in the vicinity of Laurel Street and Dexter Avenue in Watertown; aiding and abetting. Guilty.

Count 24: Possession and use of a firearm, a Ruger P95 9mm semiautomatic handgun and Pressure Cooker Bomb #3, during and in relation to a crime of violence; aiding and abetting. Guilty.

Count 25: Use of a weapon of mass destruction, Pipe Bomb #1, on or about April 19, 2013, in the vicinity of Laurel Street and Dexter Avenue in Watertown; aiding and abetting. Guilty.

Count 26: Possession and use of a firearm, a Ruger P95 9mm semiautomatic handgun and Pipe Bomb #1, during and in relation to a crime of violence; aiding and abetting. Guilty.

Count 27: Use of a weapon of mass destruction, Pipe Bomb #2 on or about April 19, 2013, in the vicinity of Laurel Street and Dexter Avenue in Watertown; aiding and abetting. Guilty.

Count 28: Possession and use of a firearm, a Ruger P95 9mm semiautomatic handgun and Pipe Bomb #2, during and in relation to a crime of violence; aiding and abetting. Guilty.

Count 29: Use of a weapon of mass destruction, Pipe Bomb #3 on or about April 19, 2013, in the vicinity of Laurel Street and Dexter Avenue in Watertown; aiding and abetting. Guilty.

Count 30: Possession and use of a firearm, a Ruger P95 9mm semiautomatic handgun and Pipe Bomb #3, during and in relation to a crime of violence; aiding and abetting. Guilty.

Updated: 2:15, p.m.So far, the jury has found Dzhokar Tsarnaev guilty of all charges that carry the death penalty. The process of going through the 30 counts is about midway complete. 11 a.m.: The jury is still out in the trial of accused Marathon Bomber Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, and deliberations could last longer than expected. 
Read more
News
5:15 am
Wed April 8, 2015

The 30 Charges Against Accused Marathon Bomber Dzhokhar Tsarnaev

Moments after the explosions on Boylston Street. Government Exhibit 1584.

After failing to reach a verdict Tuesday, a jury of 7 women and 5 men today will continue deliberating the fate of accused Marathon bomber Dzhokhar Tsarnaev.  Tsarnaev faces 30 charges, of which 17 carry the possibility of the death penalty.  

The charges are laid out over 32 pages.  17 capital punishment qualified charges-- counts 1 through 10 and 12 through 18—include the planting of a bomb and the killing of MIT police officer Sean Collier .

Read more
Local News
10:26 am
Mon April 6, 2015

Boston Marathon Bombing Jury Begins Deliberations

In this courtroom sketch, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, right, and defense attorney Judy Clarke are depicted watching evidence displayed on a monitor during his federal death penalty trial Monday, March 9, 2015, in Boston.
Credit AP Photo Jane Flavell Collins

Updated, 8:30 a.m., Tuesday, 04/07/2015:

Jurors begin deliberating Tuesday morning in the trial of admitted Boston marathon bomber Dzhokhar Tsarnaev. At issue: whether Tsarnaev's alleged crimes can be understood in isolation — or only in the context of his deceased older brother Tamerlan's influence. 

Read more

Pages